origins of the Russian state
The Novgorod region is the origin of the Russian state. It was here that the Varangians sailed to rule the Rus, it was here that the first fortresses of Rus were founded, and it was from here that the first land and water trade routes began. The first trading city in the country was founded here, but by a strange irony today, outside of it, among the foggy and swampy wilds, life is steadily dying out. Get to know the nature and history of the Novgorod land!
Top 10 interesting places to visit:
Museums and walls of the Novgorod Kremlin, Veliky Novgorod
Yaroslav's courtyard, Veliky Novgorod
Museum of Wooden Architecture Vitoslavlitsy, village Yuryevo
Yuriev Monastery and St. George Cathedral, village Yuryevo
Rurik settlement, Veliky Novgorod
Antoniev, Vyazhishchsky and Varlaam-Khutynsky monasteries near Veliky Novgorod
Lake Ilmen, near Veliky Novgorod
Resurrection Cathedral, Staraya Russa
Valdai Iversky Monastery, Valdai
Valdai National Park, Valdai
Sights map of the Novgorod region
Detailed map of all places in the region can be seen on the website of the national tourism portal RUSSIA.TRAVEL
Travel in the Novgorod region
Imagine life in the 8th century AD ... In ancient Egypt, the pyramids of Cheops were already covered with sand, the heyday star had risen and sunk over Greek Athens, Time of Troubles and devastation reigned in Western Europe, and Eastern Europe was practically not populated yet. Colonies of Greeks, Phoenicians and Persians, remote for hundreds of kilometers from each other, on the shores of the Black and Mediterranean Seas remain small islands of civilization, at a short distance from which endless darkness and impassability begins. The farther north, the more wilderness and desert places surround travelers. There is no electricity, heating, shops with goods, mechanical engineering, steel technology and stone buildings. Asphalt and gravel have not yet covered the road, and the roads themselves do not yet exist. Along narrow country paths, among dense forests full of wild animals and robbers, lonely carts and rare caravans of merchants wander along their own routes. Maps of the area are practically absent, typography has not yet been invented, and writing on birch bark was short-lived and jerky, which did not allow for long-term information storage. History is passed from mouth to mouth, from one generation to another, and gun ownership and terrain orientation are vital skills. In these harsh and cruel conditions, thousands of kilometers from the nearest centers of civilization, the history of the Russian state begins.
In the VIII century, a tribe of Slovenes came to the East European Plain and found the first settlements here. Together with several Finno-Ugric tribes, they built a number of villages and fortifications, which later became the foundation of the Russian state. However, Slovenes paid tribute to the Varangians, tribes from the Baltic Sea, who were stronger in terms of weapons, wealth, and wisdom of government. In the middle of the 8th century, Slovenes expelled the Varangians and stopped paying tribute to them, but could not agree with each other on how to rule their lands, and again went to the Varangians with a request. Its essence was to put on the reign a representative of the Varangians, who would control them with a wise hand. This was the calling of the Varangians, when Prince Rurik settled in the Rurikovo Gorodische, and the Slovenes get their first ruler. The Varangians called themselves "Ruses", and therefore, after the advent of Rurik in 862, the new state began to be called "Russian".
The ancient epic “The legend of Slovene and Ruse” says that the ancestors of the Russian people were princes Slovene and Ruse, who went to the shores of Lake Ilmen and founded two cities here - Slovensk (Veliky Novgorod) and Rusa (Staraya Russa). This legend says that Novgorod became one of the centers of Ruses along with Kiev at the beginning of the 8th century AD, and at that time was one of the richest cities in this region. The legend of Sadko, who sailed on Lake Ilmen with his flotilla and bought Novgorod goods, echoes this information. However, not all Slovenes agreed to begin to call themselves as "Ruses" and to obey to the Varangian tribes. In subsequent years, there were several major uprisings, which in the end did not succeed. Slovenes who disagree with the rule of the Varangians were forced to leave to Eastern Europe (see Slovenia), and the remaining population finally became "Russian". Over the next centuries, Novgorod established ties with neighboring northern states, repeatedly rebuilt after fires and wars with neighbors Livonians and Swedes. In 1240, the Novgorodians defeated the Swedes in the Battle of the Neva, and in 1242 they defeated the Teutonic Order in the Battle on the Ice, which finally strengthened the status of Novgorod as a great Russian city. In the next two centuries, the Novgorod Republic repeatedly won victories in battles, was built up by rich Christian monasteries, conducted trade with the Hanseatic League, and conquered more and more new lands.
However, the bright star of Novgorod was destined to fade away. In the 15th century, many adversities fell on the city in the form of fires, famines and natural disasters, followed by military operations with the united coalition of Scandinavian and European countries, as well as several wars with the gaining power of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. The military trick of the Moscow princes, who were the first to agree with the Tatar-Mongols on softening tribute, and then completely defeated the Tatar-Mongol troops and freed their lands from the yoke, led to a strong strengthening of Moscow and the growth of its political ambitions. As a result, at first it annexed the lands of the principalities in the territories of the Tver, Yaroslavl and Vladimir regions, and then entered into a military conflict with Novgorod. In 1478, Moscow finally defeated the Novgorod forces, as a result, the Novgorod lands were annexed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. The trade union with the Hansa was broken, most merchants and boyars were relocated to Moscow, and many buildings were destroyed.
Subsequently, Novgorod experienced many more troubles: pestilence and fires, the Massacre of Novgorod by Ivan the Terrible and the Swedish occupation. Due to frequent hunger and the lack of the opportunity to establish trade relations with neighbors, very few merchants, craftsmen and artisans remained in the city. In 1700, military operations began near Novgorod: the Northern War was victorious for Russia, but also brought heavy losses of the population. And then an event occurred that finally put an end to Novgorod as the rich center of the Russian state. In honor of the victory over the Swedes in the Northern War, as well as for permanent access to the Baltic Sea, Peter the Great founded the new capital of the Russian Empire - the city of St. Petersburg. It began to be erected directly in the swamps, immediately in stone and in the rich style of classicism that adorns it to this day. Following were paved roads from St. Petersburg to Moscow, which passed far from Novgorod, which, just 160 km south, became a vague shadow of ancient Russian history, which from today began to happen outside of it.
But, perhaps, it was the remoteness from the then political life that allowed Novgorod to preserve its charm and architectural monuments, which it is famous for today. Novgorod almost did not suffer during the October Revolution and managed to preserve much of its heritage during the time of the Bolshevik terror. Although it was badly damaged during the Great Patriotic War, today you can find ancient buildings and Orthodox churches throughout the old town, the construction of which dates back to the 15th, 14th and even 13th centuries. Many of them are included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site as unique monuments of Russian history! The magnificent Novgorod Detinets towers on the banks of the Volkhov River from the beginning of the 11th century and acquired its current appearance in the late 15th century. Its rich decoration, ambassadorial gifts in the Chamber of Facets, as well as the oldest Orthodox Cathedral in Russia are amazing. Directly opposite the Kremlin is the restored complex of the Yaroslav's Court, which since ancient times was the place of trade between local and foreign merchants. Many archaeological sites have been preserved here, as well as a whole scattering of ancient Orthodox churches, each of which is at least 600 years old!
Wherever you go in Novgorod, you can find ancient monuments of Russian history everywhere. Novgorod bishops met in the Anthoniev Monastery, the first tsars of the Romanov dynasty patronized the Vyazhishchy Monastery with unique tiles, and many Russian tsars and emperors repeatedly visited the Khutyn Monastery. The skeletons of the Rurikovo Gorodische tell about the calling of the Varangians and the rule of the Novgorod princes, the Peryn Chapel traces its history from the ancient temple of the pagan god Perun, and the nearby Yuriev Monastery is a historical monument about 1000 years old. Next to the Yuriev Monastery, in 1964, the Vitoslavlitsy open-air Museum of Russian wooden architecture was created, which presents preserved samples of residential and religious buildings. Some of them are over 500 years old!
Novgorod is a very small city in size and population (about 230 thousand inhabitants). However, it is a large-scale monument of Russian history and architecture, for the sake of acquaintance with which hundreds of thousands of tourists from all over the country and abroad come here. Most of the local population is committed to serving the needs of this huge stream of people who want to touch the history of the Russian state. But what is beyond Veliky Novgorod? ...
Outside of Novgorod there is almost nothing. Literally. Absolutely. With a large area of the territory, its population density is only 11 people per square kilometer, and the total population is three times less than the neighboring Leningrad region. In terms of income and earning opportunities, the Leningrad region is many times more attractive than the Novgorod region, and the cultural and educational opportunities of St. Petersburg are literally an irresistible magnet for residents of the Novgorod region. Just imagine: in the Novgorod region there are only three cities with a population of more than 30,000 people, one of which is Veliky Novgorod, and the other two are small district towns. Moreover, only one of them has an ancient history - Staraya Russa. According to "The Legend ...", the city was founded by Prince Ruse almost simultaneously with the founding of Novgorod, but according to archaeological excavations this happened only in the 11th century. Nevertheless, it is a very old and original city, where there is something to see. Here is an impressive station in the classical style, well-groomed Cathedral Square and the beautiful Resurrection Cathedral, which was once the center of a wooden fortress. In the center of the city is the Old Russian Preobrazhensky Monastery, the Trinity Church of the late 17th century, the museum-estate of medieval citizen, as well as the large balneological resort "Staraya Russa", which was opened in 1828 thanks to the ennoblement of local sources of mineral waters. Although it is much smaller than the famous resorts in the Caucasus, many people come here to improve their health.
In addition to Staraya Russa, in the Novgorod region there is another place worthy of attention. This is a secluded Iversky Monastery on an island in Lake Valdai, founded by Patriarch Nikon in 1653. The patriarch really wanted to build monasteries in the country like the famous monasteries in Jerusalem. So the New Jerusalem Monastery in Istra was founded, and the Iversky Monastery in Valday was also founded. Until the completion of the construction of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery in St. Petersburg, the Iversky Monastery was a rich center of local lands, which safely managed the economy and vast territories, but after it lost almost all of its lands. The prolonged decline and loss of the Iveron Icon of the God's Mother caused great damage to the monastery, which he only managed to make up in 2008. Then the frescoes and the main cathedral were restored here, in the first service in which the Patriarch of Russia Alexy II and the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin were present. In 2009, the monastery was visited by the new Patriarch Kirill, which once again emphasizes its special status among all Russian monasteries. The places around the monastery are very quiet and secluded, and the Valday Lake provides excellent opportunities for fishing and outdoor recreation. If you are traveling on the road from Moscow to St. Petersburg, be sure to stop in Valday and visit its picturesque sights.
Who seeks will always find. The Novgorod region, undoubtedly, has a lot of interesting and unusual beauties in the bins. Behind the desert landscapes you can see pristine nature, in the forest you can often find hidden lakes and rivers, in small villages you can feel real cosiness and romance, and during the golden autumn plunge into the fabulous beauty of sunny landscapes. Although the region has suffered greatly over its long history, here you can find such ancient artifacts that cannot be found anywhere else in Russia. Therefore, be sure to come for it here, in the Novgorod region, to the very origins of the Russian state!